Funding Systems 
Starting Places for Discussion Groups
Excerpts from Articles of Interest:

Quality Counts 2019: School Finance

Nonwhite School Districts Get 23 Billion Less than White School Districts

ESSA Action Guide | Using ESSA to Improve the Fairness of School Funding

Is School Funding Fair? 
Excerpt: Money matters because the availability and level of resources in schools matter. Fair and equitable state finance systems must be at the center of efforts to improve educational outcomes and reduce stubborn achievement gaps among students. Yet in the face of compelling evidence, most states still have not enacted school funding reforms to meet the needs of all  students, especially those who are most vulnerable because of poverty, disability, or lack of English fluency. 

Limited Impact So Far From ESSA's School-Spending Data (Due to States)
"Frustrated civil rights and school funding supporters are pushing state education officials to better publicize the school spending amounts and urging journalists and local advocacy groups to do their own detailed reporting on the  newly available data. . . The numbers should be used to drive conversations about inequities and the way we resource and fund our schools."

Education Secretary DeVos on the Presidents' 2020 Budget at the House Hearing 03/26/2019

School Budgets 101∙ Any local government or agency—including public schools— should use their budget to describe their program plans for the upcoming year.

A Punishing Decade for School Funding (Refer to Page Five)

Student Outcomes: Does More Money Make A Difference?

School Funding Does Make a Difference

School Finance Reform and the Distribution of Student Achievement/ The implied effect of school resources on educational achievement is large.

School Funding Info a Project of the Center for Educational Equity at Teachers College

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) requires that all states publish per-pupil expenditures by school level. For the first time, education leaders, policymakers and the public will know what is spent on students
in every school across the country

ESSA Interstate Financial Reporting 

Can More Money Fix America's Schools?

Money Matters

Trump and DeVos Continue to Undermine Public Education with Their Proposed Fiscal Year 2019 Budget  Also, please click here.

The 10 Biggest Cuts to the Education Budget

Congress is duty-bound (and/or the Fourteenth Amendment obligates Congress) to ensure that States are addressing State disparities by serving as the ultimate guarantor of educational opportunity


The Congressional Failure to Enforce Equal
Protection through the Elementary and Secondary Education Act


What do you know about ESSA implementation & transparency in school funding? 

Funding Transparency Under ESSA

States Sue Over School Funding

Constitutional Obligations for Public Education
Note --- If your state constitution still embraces racism contact your state education leaders or elected officials to discuss this concern.  (In regard to CT's state constituion, 7 Justices said : " Schools must be  of at least some measure or level of quality so that they do not  “do violence"  to the meaning of the term "school."  (Say What????? Racism, segregation, social exclusion, inequities, etc., of course, do not represent the U.S. value system toward students  --- or do they? 

" "Maryland must find a way to hold schools and districts
accountable for spending school funds in a way that is highly likely to produce the expected results in student performance
    --- or will they repeat the failed policies of the past?" Click here to better understand the answer to this question. 

Is your LEA publishing its methodology for allocating State and local funds, etc.? (Refer to page four.) 

Funding Education & State Legislatures 
Cheating Our Future: How Decades of Disinvestment by States Jeopardizes Equal
Educational Opportunity
Is School Funding Fair: A National Report Card
State Funding Lessons Learned: How to dig deeper
Federal Loophole Enables Lower Spending on Students of Color
Fiscal Impact of School Vouchers and Scholarship Tax Credits

District administrators balk at calculating how much each school spends per student
The NY Campaign for Fiscal Equity 
Title One Formula Fairness for Rural Schools
Educational Equity, Adequacy, and Equal Opportunity in the Commonwealth:  An Evaluation of Pennsylvania's School Finance System
The right to a sound basic education: A primer on the NY "small cities" case 
Metro DC School Spending Explorer
Related Materials

Strategies to Make Title One More Efficient and Fair

School Finance Reform, the Distribution of School Spending, and the Distribution of SAT Scores

The Impact of Court-Mandated School Finance Reform

School Level Expenditure Report (Civil Rights 2016)

ESSA requirement for in-depth K12 spending reports looms
Evidence of the Effect of the Title One Comparability Loophole
The Potential Impact of Revising the Title One Comparability Loophole
Title One Misappropriations  Jacksonville, Birmingham, Baltimore, etc.